Te Kupenga 2018 was a representative survey of Māori adults in Aotearoa (New Zealand), with a focus on culture and wellbeing, as well as language. In this paper, new estimates from Te Kupenga are reported, including the numbers of first and second language speakers of te reo Māori (the Māori language). Large proportions of both first and second language speakers reported learning te reo Māori from family and community interactions, as well as through Māori-medium education. Comparisons of three generations of adult Māori provide evidence of a resurgence in te reo Māori, with the youngest generation accounting for a majority of first language speakers and almost half of more proficient speakers. Differences between first and second language speakers in terms of proficiency, language learning and usage are significant, and need to be taken into account in the study of the revitalisation of Māori and of other languages.